Sek wikipedia

sek wikipedia

Spezialeinsatzkommandos are police tactical units of each of the sixteen German State Police The front-runner is the SEK of the Berlin Police with up to deployments a year, an average of deployments a day. The comparable unit of. Ein Spezialeinsatzkommando (SEK) ist eine Spezialeinheit der Polizei in Deutschland. Die Polizei jedes Bundeslandes verfügt über mindestens ein SEK. Ein Spezialeinsatzkommando (SEK) ist eine Spezialeinheit der Polizei in Deutschland. Die Polizei jedes Bundeslandes verfügt über mindestens ein SEK.

After the introduction of advanced equipment, the number of employees was reduced to about SEK has provided animation for the following works: They mainly work on subcontracting Italian, French, Spanish and Chinese animation.

American animation is outsourced in an indirect way. Canadian animator and cartoonist Guy Delisle documented his experiences whilst working at the SEK Studio in his graphic novel, Pyongyang: A Journey in North Korea.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German.

June Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the German article. Machine translation like Deepl or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia.

Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article.

You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary using German: Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[: Exact name of German article]]; see its history for attribution.

For more guidance, see Wikipedia: This section needs expansion with: You can help by adding to it. North Korea portal Animation portal Companies portal.

Retrieved June 23, Archived from the original on PK Report from Pyongyang. Archived from the original on February 23, Retrieved June 24, Retrieved October 12, Retrieved June 30, Archived from the original on July 17, North Korean Economy Watch.

The New York Times. A Journey into North Korean. Retrieved from " https: Whilst most states have created one Special Deployment Commando which is based in their capital city, others have more than one.

Most SEKs would have 40 to 70 operators attached, depending on the state. They are plain clothes unit that provide personal security to protect politicians and VIPs.

Some SEKs also have specialized negotiation groups Verhandlungsgruppen , commonly abbreviated as VGs for cases like hostage situations or suicide attempts.

Any state police officer is eligible to apply for service in a SEK unit, but it is common only to consider applications from officers with at least three years of duty experience.

The requirements demand physical and mental strength, discernment and capacity for teamwork. The length of the training necessary to become an operative in a SEK unit differs but is generally five to eight months long and covers a wide range of required skills.

All applications made to join the SEK are made online. SEK members do not always operate in uniform but do wear masks to protect their identities, as well as to protect their bodies from burns.

When off-duty SEK officers are called to a crime scene, they may appear plain-clothed, only wearing their special protective gear and carrying their weapons.

The SEK Cologne has been accused of harassment while performing a initiation ritual on a new member.

These plain-clothed units are specialized in surveillance, quick arrests and mobile hostage sieges or kidnappings are often used in investigations against organized crime or blackmailers.

However, the deployment of the MEK units is requested only for serious offenses. MEKs often, also, provide close protection for the state's senior leaders, including the state's minister president.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Was hinter dem Spezialeinsatzkommando steckt". Retrieved 19 July — via www. Archived from the original on Retrieved 19 July MAZ - Märkische Allgemeine.

SEK, Spezialeinsatzkommandos der deutschen Polizei. Retrieved March 28,

wikipedia sek -

Bei den Sondereinsatzkräften engl. Dies ist heute aber ungebräuchlich. Die ZUZ gilt als eine der am modernsten ausgerüsteten Einheiten ihrer Art, wobei dies darauf zurückzuführen ist, dass sie eine relativ junge Spezialeinheit ist. When off-duty SEK officers are called to a crime scene, they may appear plain-clothed, only wearing their special protective gear and carrying their weapons. Da Banknoten besonders anfällig für Fälschungsversuche sind, hat die schwedische Nationalbank bei der neuen Banknotenserie einige Sicherheitsvorkehrungen getroffen: In anderen Projekten Commons. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Klicke auf einen Zeitpunkt, um diese Version zu laden. Retrieved March 28, Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. In der zweiten Hälfte der zwanziger Jahre erlebte Schweden ein wirtschaftliches Hoch, was auf der starken Nachfrage nach schwedischen Exportgütern beruhte. Währungseinheit Europa Wirtschaft Schweden. Dies können potentielle oder identifizierte Straftäter, InformantenUndercover-Ermittler, Terrorverdächtige, nachrichtendienstlich relevante Personen und ausländische Bürger oder Diplomaten sein. A Reichsbürgerbewegung basketball europameister 2019 was confronted by the police paysafe auf konto in Bavaria with the SEK deployed Beste Spielothek in Kemnitz finden one operator shot dead after they were ordered to seize the casino lester weapons due to being mentally unfit basketball europameister 2019 handle them. Ungültige Münzen können nicht mehr gewechselt werden und haben nur noch Sammler- oder Metallwert. Im Anschluss folgen, je nach Bundesland, psychologische und wissenschaftliche Eignungstests, Fahrtests und letztlich ein Auswahlgespräch. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. Slots tm March 28, Inthe SEK was called in to intervene in Erfurt, Thuringia after a year old man barricaded himself in his apartment and acted violently towards emergency medical personnel. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Pioneering Price Level Targeting: Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Ein weiterer SEK-Mann wurde angeschossen. Dies führt bei politischen Beobachtern, Fachautoren und der Presse oft zu einer generell eher kritischen Bewertung paramilitärischer Formationen unter dem Dach von Nachrichtendiensten. Daher free gonzo sie als Atomsekunde bezeichnet. Osterreich Einsatzkommando Cobra [21]. Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz Bundeskriminalamt Bundespolizei incl. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.

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Sek wikipedia 435
Sizzling hott 2 septari The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. Dies ist mit herkömmlichem Militär, wie es fußballmanager 14 Kalten Krieg zur Abschreckung erforderlich war, sowohl technisch als auch politisch nur bedingt möglich. Nach Ausräumung eigener Bedenken publizierten sie Twister Slot - Win Big Playing Online Casino Games Ergebnisse und präzisierten sie durch die von ihnen entwickelte Quarzuhr. War früher alles der Ost-Westkonfrontation und der drohenden atomaren Apokalypse Atomkrieg untergeordnet, droht dieses Damoklesschwert heute weniger, was viele Staaten skispringen.com lässt, dass Kriege wieder führbar sind und ein nützliches Mittel der Durchsetzung politischer Ziele sein können. Sek wikipedia der bekannt gewordenen Chip apk downloaderdem privaten Ausbildungsengagement von Angehörigen deutscher Sicherheitskräfte in Libyensollen auch ehemalige GSGBeamte beteiligt gewesen sein. SEK, Spezialeinsatzkommandos der deutschen Polizei. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Die Anwendung ist nicht in allen Polizeigesetzen geregelt. Juniabgerufen am 5.
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Sek wikipedia Zwei weitere Gedenkmünzen wurden anlässlich der Hochzeit der schwedischen Kronprinzessin Victoria und Daniel Westling am Dies ist mit herkömmlichem Militär, wie glückspilz vorlage im Kalten Krieg zur Abschreckung erforderlich war, sowohl technisch als auch politisch nur bedingt möglich. In anderen Projekten Commons. Aufgrund der engen Anbindung an die militärischen Nachrichtendienste führen diese Einheiten auch Sondereinsätze Special Beste Spielothek in Dahmker finden wie gezielte Tötungen [16] oder Entführungen von Einzelpersonen, rugby hennigsdorf Beispiel eines Diktators oder Kriegsverbrechers oder die verdeckte Aufklärung in einem feindlichen Land durch. SEKs haben gegenüber der Streifenpolizei eine erweiterte Ausrüstung, die zum Beispiel aus einer 15 kg schweren beschusshemmenden Weste mit Stichschutz, einer Sturmhaube und einem ballistischen Helm besteht. Darüber hinaus eröffnen sie gänzlich neue Einsatzmuster, die herkömmlichen Einheiten nicht leisten können. Bitcoin konto kostenlos trat Schweden der Europäischen Union bei. Dies ist die gesichtete Versiondie am
This article may ksc home expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German. Chiang has often been interpreted as being pro-capitalist, but this conclusion may be problematic. Yen Hsi-shan in Shansi Province — After the war,Chinese troops under General Lu Han were sent by Chiang Kai-shek to northern Indochina north of the 16th parallel to accept the surrender of Japanese occupying forces there, and remained in Indochina untilneue casinos the French returned. Chiang Ching-kuo Chiang Wei-kuo adopted. Bezos George W. In Guangdong, Li attempted to create a new government composed of both Funflirt de erfahrungen supporters and those elitepartner anmeldung to Chiang. Although it may appear simple das erste em stream first glance to issue e-krona, this is something entirely new for a central bank and there is no precedent to follow". Retrieved 20 February Chiang and Mao had a son, Ching-kuo. The former warlord Yan Xishanwho had basketball europameister 2019 to Nanjing only one month before, quickly insinuated himself Beste Spielothek in Rahnhorst finden the Li-Chiang rivalry, attempting to have Li and Chiang reconcile their differences in the effort to resist the Communists. Beste Spielothek in Scherpemich finden early years at Whampoa allowed Chiang to cultivate a cadre of young officers loyal to both the KMT and himself. View a machine-translated version of the German article. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Die innere Organisation der SEKs ist von Land zu Land unterschiedlich, sie umfassen dabei zwischen 40 und 70 Beamte, die sich auf verschiedene Einsatzgruppen verteilen. Die Auflage betrug Oktober gegen 9. Die Angehörigen solcher Einheiten sollen in die Lage versetzt werden, unentdeckt undercover in feindlichem Territorium zu operieren. An der bekannt gewordenen Libyen-Affäre , dem privaten Ausbildungsengagement von Angehörigen deutscher Sicherheitskräfte in Libyen , sollen auch ehemalige GSGBeamte beteiligt gewesen sein. Dazu gehören auch die alten und Kronen-Noten ohne Folienstreifen, die am 1. Obwohl Schweden mittlerweile Stand die wirtschaftlichen Bedingungen für eine Euro-Einführung mit deutlichem Abstand erfüllt, werden die Konvergenzkriterien in einem Punkt absichtlich nicht erfüllt, um den Euro vorerst nicht einführen zu müssen: Weitere Aufgaben sind Peilung und Ortung, die technische Observation von Personen, Fahrzeugen und Mobiltelefonen sowie die Absicherung von verdeckten Ermittlern bei möglicherweise problematischem Täterkontakt. Beispielsweise würde eine verifizierbare Offenlegung oder sogar Gefangennahme bedeuten, dass Angehöriger solcher Einheiten nicht unter den Schutz der Haager Landkriegsordnung und Genfer Konventionen fallen und so als formale Nichtkombattanten und Spione gelten, die mit einer Hinrichtung rechnen müssen. Die , , und Kronen-Noten verfügen zusätzlich über einen Sicherheitsfaden mit wechselnden Motiven. Im internationalen Vergleich ist die Menge an Bargeld im Land gering. Der Aufnahmetest gliedert sich in physische und psychische Tests. Dies ist mit herkömmlichem Militär, wie es im Kalten Krieg zur Abschreckung erforderlich war, sowohl technisch als auch politisch nur bedingt möglich. Wie andere Eliten in Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft auch haben sie mit denselben Problemen zu kämpfen, was Akzeptanz und Berechtigung hinsichtlich Aufgabe und Etat angeht.

Sek wikipedia -

Since the s, each SEK has handled several thousand deployments. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Was hinter dem Spezialeinsatzkommando steckt". Die folgende Grafik und Tabelle zeigen die historischen Wechselkurse:. Zur schwedischen Monarchie siehe König von Schweden.

Die meisten Einsätze finden in den Medien und der Tagespresse kaum Erwähnung. Dies sind zum Beispiel die Vollstreckung von Haftbefehlen , die Verhinderung von Suizidversuchen oder die Begleitung von Gefangenentransporten.

Es werden auch Razzien im Bereich der organisierten Kriminalität durchgeführt. Die innere Organisation der SEKs ist von Land zu Land unterschiedlich, sie umfassen dabei zwischen 40 und 70 Beamte, die sich auf verschiedene Einsatzgruppen verteilen.

Manche Länder orientieren sich dabei an regionalen Kriminalitätsschwerpunkten. Flächenländer mit vergleichsweise geringer Gewaltkriminalität wie Brandenburg haben hingegen ein zentrales SEK eingerichtet, häufig in der Landeshauptstadt.

Eine Verhandlungsgruppe besteht aus speziell geschulten Polizeibeamten, die in besonderen Lagen als Sprachführer der Polizei gegenüber der Zielperson auftreten.

Beim SEK finden nur Polizeibeamte Verwendung, die bereits im regulären Polizeidienst tätig waren in der Regel mindestens zwei Jahre und die sich einem schwierigen Auswahlverfahren stellen mussten, um in die Spezialeinheit aufgenommen zu werden.

Gängig ist eine Altersbegrenzung zwischen 23 und 34 Jahren für die Bewerber. Das Anforderungsprofil setzt nicht nur auf eine überdurchschnittliche körperliche Kondition, sondern auch auf Charakterstärke, hohe Sozialkompetenz, Urteilsvermögen und Stressresistenz.

Der Aufnahmetest gliedert sich in physische und psychische Tests. Verbreitet ist auch ein Stressbelastungsgespräch, bei dem der Bewerber einem Gremium, bestehend aus einem Psychologen , einem erfahrenen Mitglied der Einheit, sowie vielerorts dem Kommandeur und seinem Stellvertreter, gegenübersitzt.

Hierbei werden die SEK-Anwärter gezielt an die Grenzen ihrer körperlichen und psychischen Leistungsfähigkeit gebracht.

Pressemeldungen zufolge wurden Hubschrauber für Privatausflüge verwendet und Rekruten gequält.

Der Professor für Polizeiwissenschaften Rafael Behr bestätigte, dass Polizei-Spezialeinheiten teils archaische und teils brutale Aufnahmerituale durchführen.

If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation.

A model attribution edit summary using German: Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[: Exact name of German article]]; see its history for attribution.

For more guidance, see Wikipedia: This section needs expansion with: You can help by adding to it. North Korea portal Animation portal Companies portal.

Retrieved June 23, Archived from the original on PK Report from Pyongyang. Archived from the original on February 23, Retrieved June 24, Retrieved October 12, Retrieved June 30, Archived from the original on July 17, North Korean Economy Watch.

The New York Times. A Journey into North Korean. Retrieved from " https: CS1 uses Korean-language script ko CS1 Korean-language sources ko CS1 German-language sources de Use mdy dates from May Articles to be expanded from June All articles to be expanded Articles needing translation from German Wikipedia Articles containing Korean-language text Articles using small message boxes Interlanguage link template link number Pages containing links to subscription-only content All stub articles.

The meaning of uprightness, rectitude, or orthodoxy, implied by his name, also positioned him as the legitimate heir of Sun Yat-sen and his ideas. Not surprisingly, the Chinese Communists always rejected the use of this name and it is not well known in mainland China.

However, it was readily accepted by members of the Chinese Nationalist Party and is the name under which Chiang Kai-shek is still commonly known in Taiwan.

Often the name is shortened to "Chung-cheng" only "Zhongzheng" in Pinyin. Many public places in Taiwan are named Chungcheng after Chiang. For many years passengers arriving at the Chiang Kai-shek International Airport were greeted by signs in Chinese welcoming them to the "Chung Cheng International Airport".

Chiang lost his father when he was eight, and he wrote of his mother as the "embodiment of Confucian virtues ".

The young Chiang was inspired throughout his youth by the realisation that the reputation of an honored family rested upon his shoulders.

He was a mischievous child, at only three years old he thrust a pair of chopsticks down his throat to see how far they would reach.

They became stuck and were removed with great difficulty. Even at a young age he was interested in war, and directed mimic campaigns with a wooden sword and spear.

As he grew older, Chiang became more aware of the issues that surrounded him and in his speech to the Kuomintang in said:.

As you all know I was an orphan boy in a poor family. Deprived of any protection after the death of her husband, my mother was exposed to the most ruthless exploitation by neighbouring ruffians and the local gentry.

The efforts she made in fighting against the intrigues of these family intruders certainly endowed her child, brought up in such environment, with an indomitable spirit to fight for justice.

I felt throughout my childhood that mother and I were fighting a helpless lone war. We were alone in a desert, no available or possible assistance could we look forward to.

But our determination was never shaken, nor hope abandoned. Chiang grew up at a time in which military defeats, natural disasters, revolts, and the machinations [ neutrality is disputed ] of the empress dowager Cixi had left the Manchu -dominated Qing Empire destabilized and in debt.

Successive demands of the Western powers and Japan since the Opium War had left China owing millions of taels of silver.

During his first visits to Japan to pursue a military career in , he describes having strong nationalistic feelings with a desire among other things to, "expel the Manchu Qing and to restore China".

He began his military training at the Baoding Military Academy in , the same year Japan left its bimetallic currency standard, devaluing its yen. There, he came under the influence of compatriots to support the revolutionary movement to overthrow the Qing and to set up a Han -dominated Chinese republic.

He befriended fellow Zhejiangese Chen Qimei , and in Chen brought Chiang into the Tongmenghui , an important revolutionary brotherhood of the era.

Finishing his schooling, Chiang served in the Imperial Japanese Army from to After learning of the outbreak October of the Wuchang Uprising , Chiang returned to China in , intending to fight as an artillery officer.

He served in the revolutionary forces, leading a regiment in Shanghai under his friend and mentor Chen Qimei , as one of Chen's chief lieutenants.

In early a dispute arose between Chen and Tao Chen-chang , an influential member of the Revolutionary Alliance who opposed both Sun Yat-sen and Chen.

Tao sought to avoid escalating the quarrel by hiding in a hospital but Chiang discovered him there. Chiang may not have taken part in the act, but would later assume responsibility to help Chen avoid trouble.

Chen valued Chiang despite Chiang's already legendary temper, regarding such bellicosity as useful in a military leader. During Chiang's time in Shanghai, the British-administered Shanghai International Settlement police watched him and charged him with various felonies.

These charges never resulted in a trial, and Chiang was never jailed. In Shanghai, Chiang cultivated ties with the city's underworld gangs, which were dominated by the notorious Green Gang and its leader Du Yuesheng.

Sun Yat-sen's political career reached its lowest point during this time when most of his old Revolutionary Alliance comrades refused to join him in the exiled Chinese Revolutionary Party.

In , Sun Yat-sen moved his base of operations to Canton now known as Guangzhou , and Chiang joined him in At this time Sun remained largely sidelined; and, without arms or money, was soon expelled from Kwangtung and exiled again to Shanghai.

He was restored to Kwangtung with mercenary help in After returning to Kwangtung, a rift developed between Sun, who sought to militarily unify China under the KMT, and Guangdong Governor Chen Jiongming , who wanted to implement a federalist system with Guangdong as a model province.

They abandoned their attacks on Chen on August 9, taking a British ship to Hong Kong [15] and traveling to Shanghai by steamer.

Sun regained control of Kwangtung in early , again with the help of mercenaries from Yunnan and from the Comintern. That same year, Sun sent Chiang to spend three months in Moscow studying the Soviet political and military system.

During his trip in Russia, Chiang met Leon Trotsky and other Soviet leaders, but quickly came to the conclusion that the Russian model of government was not suitable for China.

Chiang later sent his eldest son, Ching-kuo, to study in Russia. After his father's split from the First United Front in , Ching-kuo was forced to stay there, as a hostage, until Chiang wrote in his diary, "It is not worth it to sacrifice the interest of the country for the sake of my son.

Chiang resigned from the office for one month in disagreement with Sun's extremely close cooperation with the Comintern, but returned at Sun's demand.

The early years at Whampoa allowed Chiang to cultivate a cadre of young officers loyal to both the KMT and himself.

Throughout his rise to power, Chiang also benefited from membership within the nationalist Tiandihui fraternity, to which Sun Yat-sen also belonged, and which remained a source of support during his leadership of the Kuomintang.

Sun Yat-sen died on 12 March , [21] creating a power vacuum in the Kuomintang. In August, Liao was assassinated and Hu arrested for his connections to the murderers.

Wang Jingwei, who had succeeded Sun as chairman of the Kwangtung regime, seemed ascendant but was forced into exile by Chiang following the Canton Coup.

The SS Yongfeng , renamed the Zhongshan in Sun's honor, had appeared off Changzhou [22] —the location of the Whampoa Academy —on apparently falsified orders [23] and amid a series of unusual phone calls trying to ascertain Chiang's location.

On 5 June , he was named commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army [26] and, on July 27, he finally launched Sun's long-delayed Northern Expedition , aimed at conquering the northern warlords and bringing China together under the KMT.

The NRA branched into three divisions: Having taken Nanjing in March and briefly visited Shanghai, now under the control of his close ally Bai Chongxi , Chiang halted his campaign and prepared a violent break with Wang's leftist elements, which he believed threatened his control of the KMT.

Now with an established national government in Nanjing, and supported by conservative allies including Hu Hanmin , Chiang's expulsion of the Communists and their Soviet advisers led to the beginning of the Chinese Civil War.

Wang Jingwei's National Government was weak militarily, and was soon ended by Chiang with the support of a local warlord Li Zongren of Guangxi.

Eventually, Wang and his leftist party surrendered to Chiang and joined him in Nanjing. In December, the Manchurian warlord Zhang Xueliang pledged allegiance to Chiang's government, completing Chiang's nominal unification of China and ending the Warlord Era.

In , when he was setting up the Nationalist government in Nanjing, he was preoccupied with "the elevation of our leader Dr. Sun Yat-sen to the rank of 'Father of our Chinese Republic'.

Sun worked for 40 years to lead our people in the Nationalist cause, and we cannot allow any other personality to usurp this honored position".

He asked Chen Guofu to purchase a photograph that had been taken in Japan around or When told that it was not for sale, Chiang offered a million dollars to recover the photo and its negative.

They must be destroyed as soon as possible. It would be embarrassing to have our Father of the Chinese Republic shown in a subordinate position".

Chiang made great efforts to gain recognition as the official successor of Sun Yat-sen. In a pairing of great political significance, Chiang was Sun's brother-in-law: Originally rebuffed in the early s, Chiang managed to ingratiate himself to some degree with Soong Mei-ling's mother by first divorcing his wife and concubines and promising to sincerely study the precepts of Christianity.

He read the copy of the Bible that May-ling had given him twice before making up his mind to become a Christian, and three years after his marriage he was baptized in the Soong's Methodist church.

Although some observers felt that he adopted Christianity as a political move, studies of his recently opened diaries suggest that his faith was strong and sincere and that he felt that Christianity reinforced Confucian moral teachings.

Upon reaching Beijing, Chiang paid homage to Sun Yat-sen and had his body moved to the new capital of Nanjing to be enshrined in a grand mausoleum.

On April 12, , Chiang carried out a purge of thousands of suspected Communists and dissidents in Shanghai, and began large-scale massacres across the country collectively known as the "White Terror".

During April, more than 12, people were killed in Shanghai. The killings drove most Communists from urban cities and into the rural countryside, where the KMT was less powerful.

One of the most famous quotes from Chiang during that time was that he would rather mistakenly kill 1, innocent people rather than allow one Communist to escape.

No concrete number can be verified. Having gained control of China, Chiang's party remained surrounded by "surrendered" warlords who remained relatively autonomous within their own regions.

On 10 October , Chiang was named director of the State Council, the equivalent to President of the country, in addition to his other titles.

The ultimate goal of the KMT revolution was democracy, which was not considered to be feasible in China's fragmented state.

Since the KMT had completed the first step of revolution through seizure of power in , Chiang's rule thus began a period of what his party considered to be "political tutelage" in Sun Yat-sen's name.

During this so-called Republican Era, many features of a modern, functional Chinese state emerged and developed.

From to , a time period known as known as the Nanjing decade , some aspects of foreign imperialism , concessions and privileges [ clarification needed ] in China were moderated through diplomacy.

The government acted to modernize the legal and penal systems, attempted to stabilize prices, amortize debts, reform the banking and currency systems, build railroads and highways, improve public health facilities, legislate against traffic in narcotics , and augment industrial and agricultural production.

Not all of these projects were successfully completed. Efforts were made towards improving education standards, and in an effort to unify Chinese society, the New Life Movement was launched to encourage Confucian moral values and personal discipline.

Guoyu "national language" was promoted as a standard tongue , and the establishment of communications facilities including radio were used to encourage a sense of Chinese nationalism in a way that was not possible when the nation lacked an effective central government.

Any successes that the Nationalists did make, however, were met with constant political and military upheavals. While much of the urban areas were now under the control of the KMT, much of the countryside remained under the influence of weakened yet undefeated warlords and Communists.

Chiang often resolved issues of warlord obstinacy through military action, but such action was costly in terms of men and material.

The Central Plains War alone nearly bankrupted the Nationalist government and caused almost , casualties on both sides. In , Hu Hanmin , Chiang's old supporter, publicly voiced a popular concern that Chiang's position as both premier and president flew in the face of the democratic ideals of the Nationalist government.

Chiang had Hu put under house arrest , but he was released after national condemnation, after which he left Nanjing and supported a rival government in Canton.

The split resulted in a military conflict between Hu's Kwangtung government and Chiang's Nationalist government. Chiang only won the campaign against Hu after a shift in allegiance by the warlord Zhang Xueliang , who had previously supported Hu Hanmin.

Throughout his rule, complete eradication of the Communists remained Chiang's dream. After assembling his forces in Kiangsi , Chiang led his armies against the newly established Chinese Soviet Republic.

The Communists, tipped off that a Nationalist offensive was imminent, retreated in the Long March , during which Mao Zedong rose from a mere military official to the most influential leader of the Communist Party of China.

Chiang, as a nationalist and a Confucianist, was against the iconoclasm of the May Fourth Movement. Motivated by his sense of nationalism, he viewed some Western ideas as foreign, and he believed that the great introduction of Western ideas and literature that the May Fourth Movement promoted was not beneficial to China.

Sun criticized the May Fourth intellectuals as corrupting the morals of China's youth. Contrary to Communist propaganda that he was pro-capitalism, Chiang antagonized the capitalists of Shanghai, often attacking them and confiscating their capital and assets for the use of the government.

Chiang confiscated the wealth of capitalists even while he denounced and fought against communists. Chiang continued the anti-capitalist ideology of Sun Yat-sen, directing Kuomintang media to openly attack capitalists and capitalism, while demanding government controlled industry instead.

Chiang has often been interpreted as being pro-capitalist, but this conclusion may be problematic. Shanghai capitalists did briefly support him out of fear of communism in , but this support eroded in when Chiang turned his tactics of intimidation on them.

The relationship between Chiang Kai-shek and Chinese capitalists remained poor throughout the period of his administration.

Once Chiang Kai-shek was done with his White Terror on pro-communist laborers, he proceeded to turn on the capitalists.

Gangster connections allowed Chiang to attack them in the International Settlement, successfully forcing capitalists to back him up with their assets for his military expeditions.

Chiang viewed Japan, America, the Soviet Union , France and Britain as all being imperialists with nobody else's interests in mind but their own, seeing them as hypocritical to condemn each other for imperialism which they all practiced.

Some sources attribute Chiang Kai-shek with responsibility for millions of deaths [44] [45] in scattered mass death events caused by the Nationalist Government of China.

He is certainly partially responsible for the Yellow River flood , which killed hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians in order to fend off a Japanese advance.

Regardless the Nationalist government of China has been accused of mass killings by Rummel, estimating the Nationalist government of China is responsible for between 6 and He attributes this death toll to a few major causes, for example: He returned shortly afterwards, adopting the slogan "first internal pacification, then external resistance".

However, this policy of avoiding a frontal war against the Japanese was widely unpopular. In , while Chiang was seeking first to defeat the Communists , Japan launched an advance on Shanghai and bombarded Nanjing.

This disrupted Chiang's offensives against the Communists for a time, although it was the northern factions of Hu Hanmin 's Kwangtung government notably the 19th Route Army that primarily led the offensive against the Japanese during this skirmish.

Brought into the Nationalist army immediately after the battle, the 19th Route Army's career under Chiang would be cut short after it was disbanded for demonstrating socialist tendencies.

However, Chiang's allied commander Zhang Xueliang , whose forces were used in his attack and whose homeland of Manchuria had been recently invaded by the Japanese, did not support the attack on the Communists.

After releasing Chiang and returning to Nanjing with him, Zhang was placed under house arrest and the generals who had assisted him were executed.

Chiang's commitment to the Second United Front was nominal at best, and it was all but broken up in The Second Sino-Japanese War broke out in July , and in August of that year Chiang sent , of his best-trained and equipped soldiers to defend Shanghai.

With over , Chinese casualties, Chiang lost the political cream of his Whampoa -trained officers. Although Chiang lost militarily, the battle dispelled Japanese claims that it could conquer China in three months and demonstrated to the Western powers that the Chinese would continue the fight.

By December, the capital city of Nanjing had fallen to the Japanese resulting in the Nanking Massacre.

Chiang moved the government inland, first to Wuhan and later to Chongqing. Having lost most of China's economic and industrial centers, Chiang withdrew into the hinterlands, stretching the Japanese supply lines and bogging down Japanese soldiers in the vast Chinese interior.

As part of a policy of protracted resistance, Chiang authorized the use of scorched earth tactics, resulting in many civilian deaths.

During the Nationalists' retreat from Zhengzhou , the dams around the city were deliberately destroyed by the Nationalist army in order to delay the Japanese advance, killing , people in the subsequent Yellow River flood.

After heavy fighting, the Japanese occupied Wuhan in the fall of and the Nationalists retreated farther inland, to Chongqing.

While en route to Chongqing, the Nationalist army intentionally started the "fire of Changsha" , as a part of the scorched earth policy.

The fire destroyed much of the city, killed twenty thousand civilians, and left hundreds of thousands of people homeless.

Due to an organizational error it was claimed , the fire was begun without any warning to the residents of the city. The Nationalists eventually blamed three local commanders for the fire and executed them.

The Japanese, controlling the puppet-state of Manchukuo and much of China's eastern seaboard, appointed Wang Jingwei as a Quisling -ruler of the occupied Chinese territories around Nanjing.

He died in , within a year of the end of World War II. A border crisis erupted with Tibet in Under orders from Chiang Kai-shek, Ma Bufang repaired Yushu airport to prevent Tibetan separatists from seeking independence.

Ma Bufang attacked the Tibetan Buddhist Tsang monastery in Chiang was even named the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in the China war zone.

General Joseph Stilwell , an American military adviser to Chiang during World War II, strongly criticized Chiang and his generals for what he saw as their incompetence and corruption.

This was meant to fulfill President Roosevelt's promise to Chiang Kai-shek to begin bombing operations against Japan by November However, Chiang Kai-shek's subordinates refused to take airbase construction seriously until enough capital had been delivered to permit embezzlement on a massive scale.

Chiang played the Soviets and Americans against each other during the war. He first told the Americans that they would be welcome in talks between the Soviet Union and China, then secretly told the Soviets that the Americans were unimportant and that their opinions would not be considered.

Chiang also used American support and military power in China against the ambitions of the Soviet Union to dominate the talks, stopping the Soviets from taking full advantage of the situation in China with the threat of American military action against the Soviets.

Roosevelt , through General Stilwell, privately made it clear that they preferred that the French not reacquire French Indochina modern day Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos after the war was over.

Roosevelt offered Chiang control of all of Indochina. It was said that Chiang replied: After the war, , Chinese troops under General Lu Han were sent by Chiang Kai-shek to northern Indochina north of the 16th parallel to accept the surrender of Japanese occupying forces there, and remained in Indochina until , when the French returned.

In February he also forced the French to surrender all of their concessions in China and to renounce their extraterritorial privileges in exchange for the Chinese withdrawing from northern Indochina and allowing French troops to reoccupy the region.

Following France's agreement to these demands, the withdrawal of Chinese troops began in March During the Cairo Conference in , Chiang said that Roosevelt asked him whether China would like to claim the Ryukyu Islands from Japan in addition to retaking Taiwan, the Pescadores , and Manchuria.

Chiang claims that he said he was in favor of an international presence on the islands. In , when Japan surrendered , Chiang's Chongqing government was ill-equipped and ill-prepared to reassert its authority in formerly Japanese-occupied China , and it asked the Japanese to postpone their surrender until Kuomintang KMT authority could arrive to take over.

American troops and weapons soon bolstered KMT forces, allowing them to reclaim cities. The countryside, however, remained largely under Communist control.

For over a year after the Japanese surrender, rumors circulated throughout China that the Japanese had entered into a secret agreement with Chiang, in which the Japanese would assist the Nationalists in fighting the Communists in exchange for the protection of Japanese persons and property there.

Many top nationalist generals, including Chiang, had studied and trained in Japan before the Nationalists had returned to the mainland in the s, and maintained close personal friendships with top Japanese officers.

The Japanese general in charge of all forces in China, General Yasuji Okamura , had personally trained officers who later became generals in Chiang's staff.

Reportedly, General Okamura, before surrendering command of all Japanese military forces in Nanjing, offered Chiang control of all 1. Reportedly, Chiang seriously considered accepting this offer, but declined only in the knowledge that the United States would certainly be outraged by the gesture.

Even so, armed Japanese troops remained in China well into , with some noncommissioned officers finding their way into the Nationalist officer corps.

Westad says the Communists won the Civil War because they made fewer military mistakes than Chiang Kai-Shek, and because in his search for a powerful centralized government, Chiang antagonized too many interest groups in China.

Furthermore, his party was weakened in the war against Japan. Meanwhile, the Communists told different groups, such as peasants, exactly what they wanted to hear, and cloaked themselves in the cover of Chinese Nationalism.

Due to concerns about widespread and well-documented corruption in Chiang's government throughout his rule, the U. Alleged infiltration of the U.

Although Chiang had achieved status abroad as a world leader, his government deteriorated as the result of corruption and inflation.

In his diary on June , Chiang wrote that the KMT had failed, not because of external enemies but because of rot from within. The Nationalists initially had superiority in arms and men, but their lack of popularity, infiltration by Communist agents, low morale, and disorganization soon allowed the Communists to gain the upper hand in the civil war.

A new Constitution was promulgated in , and Chiang was elected by the National Assembly as the first term President of the Republic of China on 20 May This marked the beginning of what was termed the "democratic constitutional government" period by the KMT political orthodoxy, but the Communists refused to recognize the new Constitution, and its government, as legitimate.

Chiang resigned as President on 21 January , as KMT forces suffered terrible losses and defections to the Communists.

Shortly after Chiang's resignation the Communists halted their advances and attempted to negotiate the virtual surrender of the ROC.

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